marburg virus symptoms | marburg virus vaccine | marburg virus origin | marburg virus disease | marb

marburg virus symptoms | marburg virus vaccine | marburg virus origin | marburg virus disease | marb

point covered about marburg virus:-

marburg virus symptoms | marburg virus vaccine | marburg virus origin | marburg virus disease | marburg virus treatment | marburg virus outbreak | marburg virus deaths | marburg virus vs ebola
Marburg virus is a hemorrhagic fever virus of the Filoviridae family of viruses and Marburg Marburgvirus, a member of the genus Marburgvirus species. Marburg virus causes Marburg virus disease in humans and nonhuman primates, a form of viral hemorrhagic fever. This virus is considered extremely dangerous
  • Family: Filoviridae
  • Species: Marburg marburgvirus
  • Genus: Marburgvirus
  • Kingdom: Orthornavirae
  • Class: Monjiviricetes
  • Order: Mononegavirales
  • Marburg virus important facts

  • Marburg virus disease (MVD), formerly known as Marburg hemorrhagic fever, is a serious, often fatal disease in humans. The virus causes severe viral hemorrhagic fever in humans.

  • The average MVD case has a mortality rate of about 50%. Case fatalities in previous outbreaks have varied from 24% to 88%, depending on the virus strain and case management. Early supportive care with rehydration, and symptomatic treatment improves survival. No licensed treatment has yet been proven to neutralize the virus, but a range of blood products, immunotherapies, and drug therapies are currently under development. Russetus aegyptiacus, fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family, are known to be natural hosts of the Marburg virus. Marburg virus is transmitted from fruit bats to people and is transmitted to humans through human-to-human transmission. Community engagement is critical to successfully controlling outbreaks
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  • Marburg virus is the causative agent of Marburg virus disease (MVD), a disease with a mortality rate of up to 88%, but this can be greatly reduced with good patient care . Marburg virus The disease began in 1967 after a simultaneous outbreak in Marburg and Frankfurt, Germany; and in Belgrade, Serbia.

  • Both Marburg and Ebola virus are members of the Filoviridae family (Filoviruses). Although caused by different viruses, the two diseases are clinically similar. Both diseases are rare and have the potential to cause outbreaks with high mortality rates.
  • Two large simultaneous outbreaks in Marburg and Frankfurt, Germany, and Belgrade, Serbia, in 1967 led to early identification of the disease. The outbreak was linked to laboratory work using African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) imported from Uganda. Subsequently, outbreaks and sporadic cases have been reported in Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, South Africa (in a person with a recent travel history to Zimbabwe), and Uganda. In 2008, two independent cases were reported in travelers visiting a cave nestled in the Rousetas bat colonies in Uganda.
  • marburg virus transfer | transmission of marburg virus

  • Initially, human MVD infection resulted from prolonged exposure to mines or caves living in Rousetus bat colonies.
  • Marburg Direct contact (via broken skin or mucous membranes) with blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected people and through surfaces and materials (such as bedding, clothing) contaminated with these fluids Spreads through human-to-human transmission. .
  • Health care workers have frequently been infected while treating patients with suspected or confirmed MVD. This has happened through close contact with patients when infection control precautions are not strictly practiced. Transmission through contaminated injection equipment or through needle-stick injuries is associated with more severe illness, faster deterioration, and possibly, higher mortality.
  • Burial ceremonies that involve direct contact with the body of the deceased may also contribute to Marburg transmission.
  • People are contagious as long as they have the virus in their blood.
  • Symptoms of Marburg virus disease

  • The incubation period (the interval from infection to the onset of symptoms) varies from 2 to 21 days.
  • Illness caused by Marburg virus starts suddenly with high fever, severe headache and severe malaise. Muscle aches and pains are a common feature. On the third day, severe watery diarrhea, abdominal pain and cramps, nausea and vomiting may begin. Diarrhea can last up to a week. The appearance of patients in this stage is described as showing "ghost-like" drawn features, dark-skinned eyes, expressionless faces, and extreme lethargy. In the 1967 European outbreak, a non-itchy rash was a feature in most patients between 2 and 7 days after the onset of symptoms.
  • Many patients develop severe hemorrhagic manifestations between 5 and 7 days, and fatal cases usually result in some form of bleeding, often from multiple areas. Fresh blood in the vomit and stool is often accompanied by bleeding from the nose, gums and vagina. at venepuncture sites Spontaneous bleeding (where intravenous access is obtained to deliver fluids or obtain blood samples) can be particularly troublesome. During the acute phase of the disease, patients develop high fever. Involvement of the central nervous system can lead to confusion, irritability, and aggression. Orchitis (inflammation of one or both testicles) has occasionally been reported in the late stage (15 days) of the disease.
  • In fatal cases, death often occurs between 8 and 9 days after symptom onset, usually preceded by severe blood loss and shock.
  • Marburg virus diagnosis

  • MVD can be difficult to distinguish clinically from other infectious diseases such as malaria, typhoid fever, shigellosis, meningitis, and other viral hemorrhagic fevers. Confirmation that the symptoms are caused by infection with the Marburg virus is carried out using the following diagnostic methods:
  • Antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EL .) is one)
  • antigen-capture detection test Serum Neutralization Test
  • Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay
  • electron microscopy
  • Virus isolation by cell culture.
  • Samples collected from patients are a high biohazard risk; Laboratory testing on non-inert samples should be conducted under maximum biological control conditions. All biological samples must be packaged using the triple packaging system when transported nationally and internationally.
  • Treatments and Vaccines | marburg virus vaccine | marburg virus treatment

    There are currently no vaccines or antiviral treatments approved for MVD. However, supportive care – rehydration with oral or intravenous fluids – and treatment of specific symptoms, improves survival.
    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are under development and antivirals e.g. Remdesivir and favipiravir that have been used in clinical studies for Ebola virus disease (EVD) may also be tested for MVD or used under compassionate use/extended access.
    In May 2020, the EMA granted a marketing authorization to Zabdeno (Ad26.ZEBOV) and Mvabea (MVA-BN-Filo). Mvabea against EVD consists of a virus known as Vaccinia Ankara Bavarian Nordic (MVA), which has been modified to produce 4 proteins from Zaire Ebolavirus and three other viruses of the same group (Filoviridae) . The vaccine could potentially protect against MVD, but its effectiveness has not been proven in clinical trials.
    Marburg virus in animals Rousetus aegyptiacus bats are known to be the natural hosts of Marburg virus. There is no obvious disease in fruit bats. Consequently, the geographic distribution of Marburg virus (Marburg virus) may overlap with the range of Rousettus bats.
    African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) imported from Uganda were a source of infection for humans during the first Marburg outbreak.
    Experimental vaccination has been reported in pigs with various Ebola viruses and shows that pigs are susceptible to filovirus infection and shed the virus. Therefore, pigs should be considered as potential amplifying hosts during MVD outbreaks. Although no other domestic animal has yet been confirmed to have an association with filovirus outbreaks, as a precautionary measure they should be considered as potential amplifying hosts until proven otherwise.
    Precautionary measures are needed in pig farms in Africa to prevent pigs from becoming infected by coming into contact with fruit bats. Such infection could potentially amplify the virus and cause or contribute to an outbreak of MVD.

    marburg virus outbreak | Prevention and Control

    Good outbreak control depends on using a variety of interventions, namely case management, surveillance and contact tracing, a good laboratory service, safe and respectful burials, and social engagement. Community engagement is critical to successfully controlling outbreaks. Raising awareness of the risk factors for Marburg infection and the protective measures individuals can take is an effective way to reduce human transmission.
    The risk reduction message should focus on several factors:
    Reducing the risk of bat-to-human transmission arising from prolonged exposure to mines or caves living in fruit bat colonies. During work or research activities or tourist trips in mines or caves living in fruit bat colonies, people should wear gloves and other suitable protective clothing (including masks). During an outbreak all animal products (blood and meat) should be thoroughly cooked before consumption. Reducing the risk of human-to-human transmission in the community arising from direct or close contact with infected patients, especially with their body fluids. Close physical contact with patients from Marburg should be avoided. Gloves and appropriate personal protective equipment should be worn when caring for sick patients at home. Visiting sick relatives in hospital as well as dying sick at home Even after caring for animals, hands should be washed regularly. Communities affected by Marburg should make efforts to ensure that the population is well informed about the nature of the disease and necessary outbreak prevention measures. Outbreak prevention measures include prompt, safe and dignified burial of the deceased, identification of people who may have been in contact with someone infected with Marburg and monitoring their health for 21 days, isolating the healthy from the sick to prevent further spread. preventable and provide confirmed care. Patient and need to maintain good hygiene and follow a clean environment. Reducing the risk of possible sexual transmission. Based on further analysis of ongoing research, the WHO recommends that men with Marburg virus disease practice safe sex and hygiene for 12 months from the onset of symptoms, or until their semen is tested twice. Do not test negative for Marburg virus. Contact with body fluids should be avoided and washing with soap and water is recommended. WHO does not recommend isolating male or female patients whose blood has tested negative for Marburg virus. controlling infection in

    marburg virus Health Care Settings

    Health workers should always take standard precautions when caring for patients, regardless of their presumed diagnosis. These include basic hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (to prevent spraying or other contact with infected material), safe injection practices, and safe and respectful burial practices.
    Health workers caring for patients with suspected or confirmed Marburg virus implement additional infection control measures to prevent contact with the patient's blood and body fluids and contaminated surfaces or materials such as clothing and bedding needed. When in close contact (within 1 m) of patients with MVD, health care workers should wear face protection (a face shield or a medical mask and goggles), a clean, non-sterile long-sleeved gown and gloves (sterile gloves). ) should wear. for some processes).
    Laboratory workers are also at risk. Samples taken from humans and animals for Marburg infection should be handled by trained staff and processed in suitably equipped laboratories.
    Marburg viral persistence in people who have recovered from Marburg virus disease Marburg virus is known to persist in immune-privileged sites in some people who have recovered from Marburg virus disease. These sites include the testicles and the inside of the eye.
    In infected women while pregnant, the virus persists in the placenta, amniotic fluid, and fetus.
    In women who have contracted the infection during breastfeeding, the virus can persist in breast milk.
    Relapse-symptomatic disease in the absence of re-infection in someone recovering from MVD is a rare event, but it has been documented. The reasons for this incident are not yet fully understood.
    Marburg virus transmission through infected semen has been documented up to seven weeks after clinical recovery. More surveillance data and research are needed on the risks of sexual transmission, and especially on the spread of viable and transmissible viruses in semen over time. In the interim, and based on current evidence, WHO recommends that:
    Male Marburg survivors should be enrolled in semen testing programs upon discharge (starting at counseling) and offered semen testing if they are mentally and physically ready within three months of illness onset. A semen test should be offered if two consecutive negative test results are obtained.
    All Marburg survivors and their sexual partners should receive counseling to ensure safe sex practices until their semen has twice tested negative for Marburg virus.
    Condoms should be provided to survivors.
    Marburg survivors and their sexual partners either:
    abstain from all sexual practices, or
    Follow safe sex practices through correct and consistent condom use until their semen has been twice tested (negative) for Marburg virus.
    After testing undetermined (negative), survivors can safely resume normal sexual practices with minimal risk of Marburg virus transmission.
    Male survivors of Marburg virus disease should practice safe sexual practices and hygiene for 12 months from the onset of symptoms or until their semen has been twice tested (negative) for Marburg virus. For.
    Unless their semen has twice tested undetected (negative) for Marburg, survivors should immediately and thoroughly wash with soap and water after any physical contact with semen after masturbation. Washing hands and practicing good personal hygiene. Condoms used during this period should be handled safely, and disposed of safely, to avoid coming into contact with semen.
    Respect, dignity and compassion should be shown to all survivors, their allies and families.

    Marburg virus vs Ebola

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that can cause hemorrhagic fever. These are marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many cases, death. Both viruses are native to Africa, where sporadic outbreaks have occurred for decades. Ebola virus and Marburg virus live in animal hosts.

    WHO Feedback

    The WHO aims to prevent Marburg outbreaks by maintaining surveillance for Marburg virus disease and helping at-risk countries develop preparedness plans. The following document provides overall guidance for the control of Ebola and Marburg virus outbreaks:
    Ebola and Marburg virus disease epidemics: preparation, warning, control and evaluation When an outbreak is detected, WHO responds by assisting with surveillance, community engagement, case management, laboratory services, contact tracing, infection control, logistics support and training, and safe burial practices.
    WHO has developed a detailed advisory on the prevention and control of Marburg infection. We Need to Stop It in Its Tracks.'

    West Africa Sees First Marburg Virus Death